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Architectural Evolution of the Jebel Barkal Site

Early 18th Dynasty:

Earliest remains:  Year 33-35 Thutmose III (ca. 1446-1444 BC)

B 500-sub:  probably remains of the first Amun temple "Resthouse for Eternity"

B 1000:  well (NW end of B 500)

(Fortification wall?)

B 600 Phase I:  (Thutmose IV)

(18th Dynasty palace?)


Amarna Period

B 500  Phase Ia, b:  (AIII-Akhenaten co-regency?)

B 520-sub:  Aten chapel? (Akhenaten)

B 700-sub 1 Aten chapel (Akhenaten)

B 700-sub 3 Aten chapel (Akhenaten)

B 500  A (small buildings of talatat)

(18th Dynasty palace?)


Post-Amarna Period

B 500  Phase II: (Tutankhamun-Horemheb)

B 502 kiosk (Tutankhamun-Horemheb?)

B 700-sub 2, Phase I  (Tutankhamun to Horemheb)

B 300-sub, NK Temple to Hathor and Mut (Tutankhamun to Horemheb?)

B 1100, Phase I, "Great House" of Weret-Hekau (Tutankhamun or Horemheb)

(18th Dynasty palace?)


Early 19th Dynasty

B 500 Phase III: (Seti I)

B 1200, level I ? (19th Dynasty palace)


Later 19th Dynasty

B 500  Phase IV (Ramses II) with unfinished B 502

B 1200, level 1 ? (19th Dynasty palace)


20th-21st  Dynasty

B 500  Phase V

B 200, reused blocks of High Priest Menkheperre


Early Napatan Period: Alara

B 800 Phase I:  nucleus

B 500 under reconstruction

B 1200, level 2 (Napatan palace)


Early Napatan Period: Kashta

B 800 Phase II:

B 500 under reconstruction

B 1200, level 2 (Napatan palace)

Early Napatan Period: early Piankhy

B 500  Phase VI:  add court B 502

B 1200, level 3 (Napatan palace)


Early Napatan Period: later Piankhy

B 500 Phase VII: add court B 501

B 900 Phase I.


Dynasty 25

B 200:  Temple of Hathor (Taharqa)

B 300:  Temple of Mut (Taharqa)

B 350:  pinnacle monument (Taharqa)

B 1100 , Phase II: "Great House" (Taharqa ?)

B 500  Phase VIII:  Taharqa bark stand, Tanwetamani kiosk (B 502) (Dyn. 25)


Napatan:  650-593 BC

B 700 Phase I:  (Atlanersa, Senkamanisken)

B 700-sub 2, Phase II:  (7th century ?)

B 800 Phase IV:  (Anlamani)

B 1200 , Level 4: palace (Senkamanisken to Aspelta)


Destruction 593 BC:  War of Psamtik II

B 500:  statues toppled, broken; roofs burned

B 700 Phase I:  Destruction:  statue toppled; roof burned ?

B 1200,  Destruction of Aspelta palace by burning


Later Napatan

B 500:  Restoration, later sixth century BC

B 700: Restoration, later sixth century BC

B 1200 , Level 5:  post-Aspelta palace, rebuilt about 520-500 BC

B 1200, Level 6:  Napatan palace of "sixty rooms"  (5th-4th century BC)

B 1200 , Level 7: The palace restored by Harsiotef  (4th-3rd century BC)


Eleven pyramids built at Jebel Barkal

DB P-27  queen's tomb, Napatan (not in Dunham)

DB P-26  king's tomb, Napatan (not in Dunham)

Bar. 11 (King)  ca. 320-300 BC

Bar. 12 (Queen) ca. 320-300 BC

Bar. 13 (Queen?) ca. 320-300 BC

Bar. 14 (King?) ca. 300-285 BC

Bar. 15 (male?) ca. 300-285 BC

Bar. 24 ca. 300-285 BC

Bar. 19 (Queen?) ca. 285-275 BC

Bar. 7 (King?) ca. 275-260 BC

Bar. 8 (Queen) ca. 275-260 BC


Destruction:  rock fall from cliff (third century BC?)

B 600:  Egyptian temple destroyed

B 700: Napatan temple (phase I) damaged by rocks falling from cliff

Early Meroitic

B 561:  Mammisi temple

(B 570 and avenue of temples?)

B 600 Phase II: Early Meroitic restoration  (3rd century BC?)

B 700 Phase II: Early Meroitic restoration (3rd century BC?)

B 800 Phase V: Meroitic,

B 900-II replaces B 900-I,  Lion Temple

B 1200, Level 8:  Amanislo, with Prudhoe lions (3rd-2nd century BC)

replaced by B 100

Eight more pyramids built at Jebel Barkal)

Bar. 5 (prince) ca. 130-115 BC

Bar. 4 (Queen) ca. 100-85 BC

Bar. 2 (King) ca. 85-70 BC

Bar. 3 (Queen?) ca. 85-70 BC

Bar. 6 (Queen) ca. 55-40 BC

Bar. 1 (Prince) ca. 55-40 BC

Bar. 9 (King) ca. 20-10 BC

Bar. 10 (Queen) ca. 10-0 BC


Later Meroitic (first century AD)

B 500  Phase IX:  Meroitic  (Natakamani and Amanitore)

B 501, kiosk (Natakamani and Amanitore)

B 551 kiosk: (Amanishakheto)

B 100  Meroitic palace

B 1100 , Phase III: Meroitic (vaulted chamber) (Natakamani and Amanitore)

B 1500:  palace, Italian sector (Natakamani and Amanitore)

B 1700:  palace  (first century BC-AD)

B 1800:  kiosk? Italian sector (Natakamani and Amanitore)

B 2200: ritual structure, Italian sector (Natakamani and Amanitore)

B 3000: small chapel on top of small hill behind Museum; Italian sector

B 560 kiosk (Amanakhareqerema)

B 2400: palace ?

B 3200: palace ?

Five more pyramids built at Jebel Barkal))

Bar. 20 ca. 0-115 AD

Bar. 21 ca. 0-115 AD

Bar. 22 ca. 0-115 AD

Bar 23 ca. 0-115 AD

Bar. 25 ca. 0-115 AD


Destruction:  earthquake: Later Meroitic (second century AD)

B 600 Phase II destroyed; temple filled with stones.

B 700: Phase II destroyed; temple filled with stones.

B 560 destroyed by same earthquake (?)

B 561 destroyed by same earthquake (?)


Post Meroitic, Christian

B 500  Phase X:  Post-Meroitic constructions in B 501

B 560:  post-destruction, squatters' quarters

B 561: post- destruction, squatters' quarters