After the conclusion of Reisner's work in 1920, no further excavations were undertaken at Jebel Barkal until 1973, when an Italian Mission of the University of Rome (La Sapienza), under the direction of Prof. F. Sergio Donadoni, reopened work at the site. Up to that point the urban remains of Napata had not yet been identified, but the rolling rubble heaps extending southeast from the front of the sanctuary to the line of palms bordering the riverbank suggested the area of major ancient settlement. While Reisner had concentrated his efforts exclusively in the area of the visible temples (from B 500 southwest to B 200), Donadoni began exploring the area southeast and east of B 500. In 1977 he discovered two previously unknown Meroitic temples (B 1300-1400) and Meroitic house remains about 800 m southeast of the mountain near the edge of the palm line. Next he discovered the ruins of an enormous square palace (B 1500) just east of the main temples, belonging to the joint Meroitic rulers Natakamani and Amanitore (first century CE).
When Donadoni retired in 1992, he turned his Mission over to his colleague Prof. Alessandro Roccati, who assumed both his chair in Egyptology and the official directorship of the Mission. In 2005, when Dr. Roccati took a new position at the University of Turin, the Jebel Barkal Mission followed him there, and Turin became its new institutional sponsor. Widening the excavations around B 1500, Roccati discovered more palatial structures to the north and east of B 1500. These have been named B 1900-2200, and 2400. When Roccati himself retired in 2010, he turned over the directorship of the Mission to Prof. Emanuele Ciampini of the University of Venice, which has now become the project’s third sponsor.
In 1986, the Italian Mission was joined at Jebel Barkal by a small team from the Museum of Fine Arts (MFA), Boston, led by Timothy Kendall, which limited its work to Reisner’s former concession area. This was an area approximately 250 x 300 m, from the northeast side of B 500 to B 200 in the west, and from the Jebel Barkal cliff to the road in front of B 500, northwest to southeast. Given the finds from this area and that worked by the Italian Mission, It now appears that the former was the main sanctuary area and the latter was an area of large secular palatial buildings.
Under MFA sponsorship the Kendall team worked five short seasons - 1986, 87, 89, 96, and 97. In 1999, with Kendall’s departure from the MFA, his expedition temporarily merged, at Dr. Roccati’s invitation, with the Italian Mission. Then in 2003, at the request of Hassan Hussein Idriss, Director General of the Sudan’s National Corp. for Antiquities and Museums (NCAM), Kendall’s mission was designated an official NCAM Mission, with new US sponsorship from the African-American Studies Dept., Northeastern University, Boston, through grants from the Marilyn M. Simpson Foundation, Charles Frisch and Cynthia Walpole, and the J. A. and H. G. Woodruff Charitable Trust. This expedition has continued working nearly each season to the present. In 2013 funding of the Mission, together with some thirty other teams, was undertaken by the Qatar-Sudan Archaeological Project (QSAP), also known as the Nubian Archaeological Development Organization of Qatar-Sudan.
The field objectives of the NCAM Mission have been: 1) To re-examine and fully record all of the temples and palaces excavated by Reisner and to prepare final descriptions, measurements, plans, drawings, reconstructions and photographs of each, 2) to survey and map the entire temple area, as well as each structure, both topographically and block-by-block, 3) to survey the concession area through magnetometry to try to identify structures not visible from the surface, 4) to collaborate with Prof. Roccati and his Italian Mission to share data and to map the entire site, including the excavation areas of both teams, 5) to seek stratified archaeological evidence of pre-Egyptian and early Egyptian occupation of the site to determine when the mountain might first have acquired cultic importance, 6) to explore the cliff face and to record the ancient evidence for construction and human workmanship on the mountain itself, and 7) to examine the textual and iconographic record of Jebel Barkal to better understand the nature of its cult, its religious meaning, and its place in history.
The Italian and NCAM teams at Jebel Barkal have two very different concession areas. The Italian Mission is licensed to work in the area northeast of the Great Amun Temple (B 500), which is an area of predominantly Meroitic secular buildings, the largest being the great palace of Natakamani (B 1500). The NCAM team is licensed to work in the area southwest of this line, which is the area of temples to which Reisner devoted his attentions. This area consists mainly of Egyptian and Napatan religious buildings, many of them restored in Meroitic times. The two areas provide their respective excavators with very different cultural remains and historical foci.
The most recent survey and magnetic data suggest that the Barkal sanctuary includes at least twenty-four important structures (temples, chapels and palaces), of which eleven have been partly or wholly excavated. Neolithic and rare Kerma potsherds have been recovered on the site, out of context, and two pre-Egyptian graves were found by Reisner in the embankment in front of B 600, revealing that the site indeed had a pre-Egyptian past. However, no architectural traces of any pre-Egyptian settlement have yet been identified. The earliest known buildings on the site date from mid-Dynasty 18. Most of the major sacred buildings have Egyptian foundations, which were overbuilt repeatedly throughout Napatan and Meroitic times (See B 300, B 500, B 600, B 700 sub-2, B 1100, B 1200).
The Jebel Barkal temples and palaces are in very poor condition, owing, first, to the very soft nature of the building stone, second, to the severity of the local environment (floods and sandstorms), and, third, to the long-term looting of the site by local villagers seeking cut stone blocks for use in the lining of the graves of the Muslim cemetery, immediately west of the temples. In contrast to the buildings of the sanctuary, the small pyramids on the west side of Jebel Barkal are among the best preserved in Sudan. These indicate that the western flank of the mountain became the site of an important royal cemetery from late Napatan to Meroitic times (ca. 300 BCE to 150 CE). Between 1995 and 1997, a team from the Fundacio Clos of Barcelona, Spain, under the direction of Francesca Berenguer renewed excavations in the Barkal cemetery and discovered two previously unknown royal tombs of the later Napatan Period, one of them fully painted with an astronomical ceiling.
The collaboration in 2013 between Qatar and Sudan to promote archaeological discovery and conservation in Sudan added three new teams to the exploration of Jebel Barka. These are:
1) a project to clean and restore the wall paintings in the rock-cut chambers of the Temple of Mut (B 300) of Taharqa, a mission directed jointly by Mrs. Iglal Mohamed Osman El-Malik, head of Conservation for NCAM, and Dr. Maria Concetta Laurenti for ISCR (Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione e il Restauro in Rome)
2) a project to excavate the several large Napatan and Meroitic buildings discovered approximately 700 m north and east of Jebel Barkal in the Abbaseya district of Karima, assigned to the Archaeological Mission of Wahat Projects, Spain, in collaboration with the University of Dongola (Karima Branch), directed by Dr. Montserrat Diaz de Cerio (http://www.wahatprojects.com/noticies_en.html), and
3) a project to record and conserve the Jebel Barkal pyramids, sponsored by the German Archaeological Institute and directed by Dr. Alexandra Riedel and Mahmoud Suliman (http://www.qsap.org.qa/en/about-us/sudan-pyramids).
The NCAM (former MFA, Boston) Jebel Barkal Archaeological Mission:
Staff, Activities, and Bibliography: summary by season.
Season 1: March 18 - April 3, 1986: T. Kendall and Cynthia Shartzer, with Babiker Mohamed El-Amin (for the Sudan Antiquities Service [now NCAM]) 1) exposed and recorded the accessible surviving fragments of the Piankhy reliefs in B 500 (courts 501 and 502) and re-buried them for their protection, 2) photographed all exposed relief fragments of B 800/900, and 3) examined and mapped the cliff edge on top of Jebel Barkal, directly opposite the pinnacle peak, in order to record the line of large chiseled holes and traces of stone-cutting, which suggested the means by which ancient sculptors were able to cross the 11 m gorge from cliff top to pinnacle in order to carve the panel of inscription just under the south side summit. At the time this inscribed panel could only faintly be observed with binoculars from the ground (See B 350).
Kendall 1986, 2004; Leclant and Clerc 1987.
Season 2: Feb. 14 -March 30, 1987: T. Kendall (Director), C. Shartzer (Project Mgr.), Paul Duval (Alpinist), Nathalie Beaux and Lynn Holden (Egyptologists), with Babiker Mohamed El-Amin (for the Sudan Antiquities Service [now NCAM]) 1) mapped floors and made elevation drawings of B 700, 2) photographed and made drawings of the fragmentary reliefs and columns in B 700; 3) climbed the pinnacle to observe and photograph the inscribed panel (which proved to be part of a monument of Taharqo, restored by Nastasen) and other construction details on the pinnacle summit and between the cliffs (See B 350), 4) examined (after discovery by Ms. Beaux) a number of graffiti scratched in grottoes on the western side of Jebel Barkal (Cave site II), 5) excavated one of the flag niches in the second pylon of B 500, exposing a bronze disk, approximately 1 m diam, made of overlapping bands of heavy bronze, that had been nailed to the bottom of the flag mast. On this bronze plate, lying face down, were two small bronze plaques in the form of bound enemy figures, each inscribed in Meroitic, both with nails driven through them.
Kendall 1987; 1988; 2004; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 1986-87; Leclant and Clerc 1988.
Season 3: Jan. 8 - Feb. 24, 1989: T. Kendall (Director), Cynthia Shartzer (Project Mgr.), Susanne Gänsicke (Conservator), David Goodman (Surveyor), Paul Duval (Alpinist) and Enrico Ferorelli (Photographer), with Babiker Mohamed El-Amin (for the Sudan Antiquities Service [now NCAM]): 1) recorded and photographed the damage done to the site by the Nile flood of August, 1988, 2) excavated an area in front of B 500, exposing the pavement of the sacred way leading into the temple, and recording the plan and interior decoration of kiosk B 551, 3) photographed and recorded the graffiti discovered on the western cliff in 1987 (Cave Site II), 4) completed the recording of the pinnacle monument of Taharqo (B 350), 4) surveyed the mountain and temples and made a preliminary overall map of the site, 5) measured and made elevation drawings of all the known temples in order to try to re-create them in computer model and to begin construction of an overall 3-D site model. These first temple elevations were completed in Boston by Susanne Gänsicke; computer reconstructions were completed by William Riseman.
Kendall 1990a; 1990b; 1991a; 1994; Kendall and Riseman 1990; Leclant and Clerc 1990;
Season 4: April 5-24, 1996: T. Kendall (Director), Cynthia Shartzer (Project Mgr.), and Susanne Gänsicke (Conservator), with El-Hassan Ahmed Mohammed for NCAM: 1) excavated rooms B 1213-15, 1221-22 in the Napatan Palace B 1200, and discovered the audience hall of Aspelta (which the team later fully exposed in 2007), 2) sifted and removed a dump of Reisner that related to B 1200 (rooms 1201-02), and 3) probed the undocumented area in front of the pinnacle and found remains of a ruined temple (B 1100).
Kendall 1991b; Kendall 1997.
Season 5: Jan 1-Jan 20, 1997: T. Kendall (Director), Cynthia Shartzer (Project Mgr.), Susanne Gänsicke (Conservator), and Alan M. May (Archaeological Assistant), with El-Hassan Ahmed Mohammed (for NCAM) and Faiz Hassan Osman (representing the Department of Archaeology, Karima University): 1) continued excavations in B 1200 (rooms 1217 and 1218), 2) excavated a second (disturbed) flagstaff niche in B 500 with recovery of more prisoner plaques, all highly fragmentary, 3) commenced excavation of B 1100 and mapped all blocks.
T. Kendall 1997b.
Season 6: Feb. 2 – 17, 1999: T. Kendall (Director) and Cynthia Shartzer (Project Mgr.), with El-Hassan Ahmed Mohammed (for NCAM): 1) continued excavation of B 1100, recording many fragments of Meroitic blue tiles and pieces of a lined quartzite Meroitic stela (text lost, probably originally only painted), and 2) began excavation of the earth embankment behind B 1100 to determine if the structure had been connected to the pinnacle base or had possessed deeper rock-cut rooms, and if these hypothetical rooms had been buried by an ancient rock fall. Our working hypothesis was that the temple, like B 200 and 300 immediately to the west, had rock cut inner chambers, which might have been sealed in antiquity by the rock fall.
Kendall 1999c; 2002.
Season 7: Dec. 4-12, 2000: T. Kendall (Director) and Margaret S. Watters (Geophysicist), with El-Hassan Ahmed Mohammed and Ahmed Moussa (both for NCAM), and Faiz Hassan Osman (representing Wadi el-Nil University, ed-Damer) conducted geophysical investigations at Jebel Barkal, using both magnetometry and ground penetrating radar: 1) surveyed by magnetometry the entire area of B 1150 without finding any legible architecture, and 2) surveyed a sample area northeast of B 500, in which was recovered the partial plan of an important new structure with temple outline, named B 1700. This previously unknown temple, about the size of B 700, is northeast of and parallel to B 500 (It was surveyed by magnetometry more carefully during the 2007 season).
Season 8: Feb. 6-27, 2002: T. Kendall (Director), Cynthia Shartzer (Archaeologist) (Feb. 4-15), and Pawel Wolf, Ulrike Nowotnick (Archaeologists), Annett Dittrich, and Diana Nickel-Tzschach (Assistants) (Feb. 15 to 25), with Shadia Abu Rabu Abdel Wahab (for NCAM): 1) continued excavation of the area directly behind B 1100, without result, 2) commenced exploratory excavation of the area B 1150, also without result. All the major visible architectural fragments of columns, sandstone blocks, and baked bricks, suspected to derive from a temple in front of B 1100, proved to be loose and without context, and no structural remains were found in situ.
Season 9: March 4-April 3, 2004: T. Kendall (Director), Pawel Wolf, Ulrike Nowotnick (Archaeologists), and Alexandros Tsakos (Assistant) with El-Hassan Ahmed Mohammed (for NCAM): 1) surveyed the rubble embankment behind B 1100 in order to create a 3-D computer image of the mountainside, showing the pinnacle, B 1100, and the neighboring temples B 200 and 300 together, 2) created a photographic inventory and object list of the Jebel Barkal Museum, 3) cleaned Museum and repaired and sealed windows.
Season 10: Jan. 4- Feb. 2005: T. Kendall (Director), Max Farrar (Surveyor), Jeremy Pope (Assistant) (Jan. 4-19), Martin Pittertschatscher (Conservator), Silvia Zauner-Mayerhofer (Conservator), Alexandros Tsakos (Assistant), with El-Hassan Mohamed Ahmed and Rehab Khidir al-Rashid for NCAM and Faiz Hassan Osman for the Archaeology Dept., Wadi el-Nil University. ed-Damer: 1) hired men with sledge hammers to break up the large fallen stones lying above and behind B 1100 in order to start major excavation of the rubble embankment between that temple and pinnacle, 2) began clearing the inner rooms of B 500, built with talatat blocks to clarify Amarna period construction, 3) looked (without result) for traces of Amarna relief on talatat blocks in B 500, 4) procured from the provincial governor a plot of land 100 m sq. just east of the mountain on which to build a new site museum (if funds become available), 5) surveyed and undertook test excavations on the new museum site to confirm that there were no underlying ancient remains (There were none), and 6) conservators prepared a proposal to conserve the wall paintings in B 300.
Season 11: Nov. 8-Dec. 10, 2005: T. Kendall (Director), Max Farrar (Surveyor), Silvia Zauner-Mayerhofer (Conservator), A. Tsakos (Assistant), with El-Hassan Ahmed Mohamed for NCAM: 1) continued a block-by-block mapping of the Barkal Temples in the pavements of B 300-sub, which proved to be inscribed for Ramses II (suggesting the date of the founding of that temple), and B 200, whose heavy pylon blocks, still in situ, appeared to be reused blocks from a New Kingdom (Thutmose III or IV?) temple (Some bear traces of 18th Dynasty block patterns), 2) embarked on creating a topographically accurate survey model of the mountain, in order ultimately to create a realistic three-dimensional computer model of the site.
Season 12: Feb. 3-March 11, 2006: T. Kendall (Director), Pawel Wolf (Field Director), Ulrike Nowotnick (Archaeologist), Nadejda Reshetnikova (Draughtsperson), Stanislav Vorstrikov (Assistant), Thomas Goldmann, Ronny Wutzler, and Mohamed Abdel Wahab (Geophysicists), with El-Hassan Mohamed Ahmed for NCAM: 1) continued clearing area behind B 1100, without result, 2) commenced excavation of a 10 x 20 sq. m area on northwest side of B 1200 (not previously excavated by Reisner), hoping to find the pedestals of the Prudhoe lions (in the British Museum), since many fragments of the lions lay scattered on the ground there; found a complex of mud brick walls, corridors and rooms, representing several building phases, of uncertain chronology, 3) commenced (Feb 20-Mar 5) a new magnetometry survey in an area in front of and behind B 1200, discovered major sub-surface structural remains on southwest side of B 1200, 6) discovered (by magnetometry) the northeast corner of B 100, which had been excavated and reburied by Reisner in 1916, before he had placed it on a site map, 7) continued the magnetic survey in front of B 500 and found three small Meroitic chapels perpendicular to the sacred way, just like those in front of the Amun temple at Meroe (B 560, 570, 580).
Season 13: February 18-March 31, 2007: T. Kendall (Director), Pawel Wolf (Field Director), Ulrike Nowotnick (Archaeologist), Thomas Goldmann, Ronny Wutzler (Geophysicists), Alexander Kendall (Assistant) (Feb. 19- Mar. 2) Jana Neumann, Judith Heymach, Lukas Goldmann (Assistants) (Mar. 4-15); Max Farrar (Surveyor) (Feb. 18-Mar. 8), with Al-Hassan Ahmed Mohamed for NCAM: 1) continued the magnetometry survey, begun in 2000 and 2006, into the northern and northeast part of the site, between B 500 and B 1500, 2) excavated, mapped, and photographed the inner chamber 603 of B 600, recovered gold foil and amazonite inlay fragments from sockets on podium, 3) cleared inner chambers of B 700 to commence block by block mapping, 4) excavated the large audience hall of Aspelta in palace B 1200 (begun in 1996).
Kendall andWolf 2007.
Season 14: February 29-April 1, 2008: T. Kendall (Director), Pawel Wolf (Field Director); Manja Wetendorf-Lavall (Archaeological Assistant and Ceramicist); Heather Wilson (Archaeological assistant); Robert Rosa (Surveyor); El-Hassan Ahmed Mohamed for NCAM: 1) continued a detailed survey and mapping of the temple site, showing each structure, block by block, and all loose blocks, 2) completed excavation of temple B 600, and 3) examined earliest (talatat) structure of B 500 and other small talatat-built sanctuaries on the site (B 700 sub-1, 2, 3) in order to better understand the evolution of the Barkal sanctuary during and after the Amarna period.
Season 15: Feb. 17-March 23, 2009: T. Kendall (Director), Robert C. Rosa (Surveyor), Heather Wilson (Archaeologist); Silvia Zauner-Mayerhofer (Conservator) and Al-Hassan Ahmed Mohamed, Inspector, NCAM: 1) completed mapping temples B 500 (inner rooms and courts), B 800 (outline and eastern rooms), 900 (areas 901-904), and palace B 1200, 2) conducted thorough excavations in earliest rooms of B 500, which were built of Amarna-style talatat masonry, 3) could find no trace of a pre-talatat B 500, 4) discovered two foundation deposit cavities under talatat walls in B 500, both were empty, 5) excavated and surveyed B 900 (901-904) and recovered approximately 50 reused blocks of Snfr-R’ Piankhy, later removed to the Jebel Barkal Museum, 6) collaborated with A. Roccati to survey the large buildings in the Italian concession in order to add them to the master site map, 7) set out and surveyed new boundary markers for the archaeological site, so that a barrier fence could be built around it to protect it; the new boundaries will be used by UNESCO to designate the area a World Heritage Site.
Season 16: Nov. 8-Dec.14, 2010: T. Kendall (Director), Pawel Wolf (Field Director Nov. 4-Nov. 25); Samreen Wolf (Assistant); Heather Wilson (Archaeologist), Silvia Zauner-Mayerhofer (Conservator); Rosemarie Mispagel (specialist in Jebel Barkal), Charles R. Morgan (Archaeological Assistant); Al-Hassan Ahmed Mohamed, Inspector, NCAM. 1) Recorded over a hundred loose or reused relief blocks and 36 column drums in B 700 in order to reconstruct the temple in computer and determine its religious significance; 2) made complete drawings of the floor of room 703 with its paving stones and photographed each room of B 700 from a high ladder; 3) recorded B 200: found many new details of construction and alteration, and we were able to gather enough new data to be able to identify and restore most of the relief figures, which are badly eroded; 4) recorded rooms B 504a-c, which Reisner had attributed incorrectly to Thutmose III); 5) excavated, without success, in the area NE of the first pylon of B 500 in order to try to find vestiges of the pit of the statue cache, 6) recorded the tomb of local saint Wad Ahmed Karsani, built about 1900 and incorporating many reused blocks from the ancient monuments.
Season 17: Nov. 11 to Dec. 30, 2011: T. Kendall and El-Hassan Ahmed Mohamed,(Co-Directors), Heather Wilson (Archaeologist); Silvia Zauner-Mayerhofer (Conservator); Rosemarie Mispagel (Assistant); Yasin Mohamed Said (surveyor), Hatim Osman Fadl, (Chief Excavator); 28 workmen. Two excavating teams worked simultaneously in different sectors: one, in B 500, supervised by Ms. Wilson, with Mr. Fadl, Ms. Zauner-Mayerhofer, and Ms. Mispagel assisting, and the other, in B 1200, supervised by Kendall and Mohamed. 1) Under the supervision of Ms. Wilson, the northern side of court 503 as well as rooms 504a and c (“The Seti Chapel”) of the Great Amun Temple (B 500) were cleared, and at least four New Kingdom construction phases were noted, including a mud brick structure that lay under overlying talatat pavements.
2) Noted that broken statue in Tombos quarry was probably made to stand in front of B 700. 3) Excavated in B 1200, clearing a third large throne room or audience hall on the SE side of the complex (rooms 1250-1224-1223, 1248-1227-1226, and 1248-1230-1229). Originally these three rooms comprised one single room, about 8.5 x 26 m., running SW to NE. The mud-brick walls are laid on the deepest level. The date of this hall must be assigned to early Dynasty 25, judging by the Egyptian marl ware and red-painted-rim sherds found in the debris which filled it in after its destruction. None of the stone elements bears inscription, and no royal names were present, but because the hall is aimed at the entrances to B 800, first completed by Kashta, and the 2nd pylon entrance of B 500, restored by Piankhy about Year 20, it would seem to belong to the mid-eighth century BC. This level was destroyed by a flood or multiple back-to-back flooding episodes, for a pair of thick silt layers can be seem in the several rooms at the same level. These silt layers are linked to one wall that was clearly severely undercut by water and to others that simply collapsed inward. One naturally thinks of linking these signs of flooding to the great flood in Taharqa’s sixth year
First QSAP Season 18: Oct. 18- Dec. 15, 2013: T. Kendall and El-Hassan Ahmed Mohamed (Co-Directors); Heather Wilson (Archaeologist), Silvia Zauner-Mayerhofer (Conservator), and Rosemarie Mispagel (Egyptologist); Sami Mohamed el-Amin (Inspector, NCAM), Rob Rosa (Surveyor), Geoff Kornfeld (Computer modeler) and Bryan Whitney (Photographer). 1) complete documentationb of temple B 200, 2) complete documentation of the inner rooms of B 500 (B 503, 505-507, 508-511, 514-519, and 522), kiosks B 501, 502, and B 551, the “sacred way” in front of B 500 and, if time permits, one of the small unexcavated chapels perpendicular to it (“B 560”), discovered by magnetometry in 2007. complete recording of the archaeological and architectural data, photographing and drawings, surveying each structure, mapping all blocks in situ, and creating photographic 3D models of each temple in its present state, as well as in its presumed state in antiquity.
Second QSAP Season 19: January 15-March 15, 2014: T. Kendall and El-Hassan Ahmed Mohamed (Co-Directors); Heather Wilson (Archaeologist), Silvia Zauner-Mayerhofer (Conservator); Dominic Perry (Egyptologist); Joyce Haynes (Egyptologist, Archaeologist)' Rosa Frey (Archaeologist); James Knudstad: (Architect, Archaeologist); Dobiesława Baginska (Pottery Specialist), Nadezhda Reshetnikova (Architect, Computer Modeler), Rob Rosa (Surveyor), Bryan Whitney (Photographer). Sami Mohamed el-Amin (Inspector, NCAM). The mission staff was organized into three archaeological teams: Team I, consisting of Heather Wilson, Dominic Perry, Silvia Zauner-Mayerhofer and their workmen, continued excavations in B 500 (Great Amun Temple) and further refined our understanding of the evolution of the New Kingdom phases of the temple. The team exposed nine separate phases or additions to the temple before the first Kushite level of Piankhy. Team 2 consisted of Joyce Haynes and T. Kendall and their workmen, excavated the B 551 kiosk of Amanishakheto, in front of B 500. They cleared the building to its floor, recorded all its architectural details, recorded its surviving reliefs, and documented the details of the six ram statues and their pedestals on either side of it. Team 3, consisting of Rosa Frey, Jim Knudstad and their workmen, with participation of Joyce Haynes and T. Kendall, excavated the double-kiosk leading into the temple B 560 (discovered by magnetometry in 2007). This structure, previously unknown and never before excavated, was thoroughly documented to its floor in multiple 3D images, showing each stage of the excavations. It was mapped by Rob Rosa; fine plans were drawn by James Knudstad; and architectural and color details were recorded by Nadejda Reshetnikova for preparation of making a reconstruction model of B 560 in computer. The area of B 560 seems to be one containing several unknown and previously unsuspected temples, all perpendicular to the main avenue leading into B 500.
Third QSAP Season: Season 20: Nov. 17-Dec. 15, 2014: T. Kendall and El-Hassan Ahmed Mohamed (Co-Directors); Heather Wilson (Archaeologist), Silvia Zauner-Mayerhofer (Conservator); Joyce Haynes (Egyptologist, Archaeologist); Dobiesława Baginska (Pottery Specialist), Nadezhda Reshetnikova (Architect, Computer Modeler), Rob Rosa (Surveyor), Bryan Whitney (Photographer). Sami Mohamed el-Amin (Inspector, NCAM). Team 1, under the direction of Ms. Wilson, excavated floor levels in the second court B 502; while Team 2, under the direction of Sami el-Amin, excavated the first court B 501, exposing NE, SW, and SE walls, recording all reliefs, Napatan (Piankhy) and Meroitic (Natakamani); Team 3, under the direction of Mohamed Osman and Joyce Haynes, excavated the newly discovered small temple B 561.
Fourth QSAP Season: Season 21: Jan. 17-March 15, 2015: T. Kendall and El-Hassan Ahmed Mohamed (Co-Directors); Joyce Haynes (Egyptologist, Archaeologist), Mohamed Osman Abdulla (Archaeologist, Computer specialist), Maksim Lebedev (Archaeologist), Simone Nannucci (Archaeologist); Lyla Pinch-Brock (Draughtsman), Dobiesława Baginska (Pottery Specialist), Nadezhda Reshetnikova (Architect, Computer Modeler), Rob Rosa (Surveyor). Sami Mohamed el-Amin (Inspector, NCAM). Team 1, under the direction of Sami el-Amin, continued excavating the first court B 501, exposing NE, SW, and SE walls, recording all reliefs; Team 2, under the direction of Mohamed Osman and Joyce Haynes, continued excavating the small temple B 561, exposing approximately one half of temple, recording reliefs in sanctuary and Meroitic hieroglyphic texts on columns, created detailed plans and temple model, collected and recorded all objects found and hundreds of pottery sherds; Team 3, under the directions of Mr. Lebedev and Mr. Simone, commenced excavation of B 1700, a large mud brick Meroitic structure, about 50 m NE of B 500, lying parallel to that temple