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V. Early Explorers and Excavators
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The ruined temples and pyramids of Jebel Barkal were first recorded - and in some cases partly excavated - by Western travelers between 1820 and 1880, many of whom left fine sketches and careful descriptions of the ruins as they saw them.   Among these were:

Dec., 1820:
George Waddington (1793-1869) and Barnard Hanbury  (dates ? )    (English)

G. Waddington and B. Hanbury.  Journal of a Visit to Some Parts of Ethiopia.  London, 1822, p. 166-167;

Feb. 8, 1821, and April, 1822:
Frédéric Cailliaud (1787-1869) with Pierre Letorzec     (French)
F. Cailliaud.  Voyage à Meroé, au fleuve blanc...  vols. ii,  41-43, iii, 216-218.   Paris, 1826

Feb., 1821:
George B. English (1787-1828)     American)

G. B. English.  A Narrative of the Expedition to Dongola and Sennar...      Boston, 1823.

Oct. 8-15, 1821:
Louis M. A. Linant de Bellefonds (1799-1883) and Alessandro Ricci (dates ? )   (French and Italian)
M. Linant de Bellefonds.  Journal d'un voyage à Meroe dans les anneés 1821 et 1822.  Edited by M. Shinnie.  Sudan Antiquities Service Occasional Papers, no 4.  Khartoum, 1958, p.  49;  Patricia Usick: Adventures in Egypt and Nubia. The Travels of William John Bankes (1786-1855). The British Museum Press, 2002.

Algernon Percy, 4th Duke of Northumberland/Lord Prudhoe (1792-1865) and Maj. Orlando Felix (dates ? )  English)
F. Ll. Griffith, "Scenes from a Destroyed Temple at Napata,"  Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 15 (1929), 26-28.  (Prudhoe Ms.:  Atlas (A), folio 37(a), Alnwick Castle.

James Burton (ca. 1790-1862)    (English)

London (Burton Ms. 25651, 7 [top], 68 [top])

Edouard Rüppell (dates ? )    (German)

E. Rüppel.  Reisen in Nubien, Kordofan, und dem peträischen Arabien.  
Frankfurt am Main, 1829.

George Alexander Hoskins (1802-1863)      (English)

G.A. Hoskins.  Travels in Ethiopia...  London, 1835.  pp. 140-141, pls. 23, 25     

Sept., 1835:
John Lowell (1799-1835) and Marc Gabriel Charles Gleyre (1806-1874)      (American and Swiss)

Lowell Diaries, now stored at the Boston Athenaeum, with early copies in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.  His description of Jebel Barkal is found in Journal 6.  See also J. MacDonald, "The Egyptian Trip of John Lowell, Jr.," Bulletin of the Egyptological Seminar 6 (1985), 69 79.; W. Hauptman, Charles Gleyre: Tradition and Innovation, in Grey Art Gallery and Study Center, New York University, Charles Gleyre: 1806 1874 (Feb. 6   March 22,1980), p. 13; See also C. Clement, Gleyre: Étude biographique et critique (Paris, ca. 1880)


Pierre Tremaux (1818-1895)    (French)                                                                                                                 P. Tremaux, Voyages au Soudan orientale.  Paris 1852-1858.

May, 1844:
Karl Richard Lepsius (1810-1884)   (Prussian)

K.R. Lepsius, Letters from Egypt, Ethiopia, and the Peninsula of Sinai.  London, 1853.,  pp. 18, 220, 222, frontispiece (shows pylon of B 700 as torn down);  Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien (Berlin, 1849-59), Abt. I, Bl. 126

John Gardner Wilkinson (1797-1875)   (English)                                                                                       
Unpublished journals of his travels in Sudan now in Bodleian Library, Oxford

Bayard Taylor (1825-1878)     (American)
Bayard Taylor, A Journey to Central Africa; or, Life and Landscapes from Egypt to the Negro Kingdoms of the White Nile (New York, 1854)

Following the wars of the Mahdi (1883-1898) and the conquest of Sudan by Great Britain (1898), Jebel Barkal was again visited by foreigners, who began a new period of documentation of the site through the medium of photography.  E. A. Wallis Budge, accompanying Kitchener's army, visited the site in 1897 and made a number of snapshots as he conducted unsystematic excavations for the British Museum.  James H. Breasted and his Epigraphic Survey made a series of superb photographs of the site in 1907 for the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.  This early photographic record may be thought to culminate with the several hundred additional photographs made by G. A. Reisner during his excavations of the site for Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts (MFA), Boston, between 1916 and 1920.   

1897, 1905
Ernest A. T. Wallis Budge (1857-1934)    (English)

E.A.W. Budge.  The Egyptian Sudan, Its History and Monuments.  vol. I. London, 1907, pp. 139-143.

Dec., 1906:
James H. Breasted (1865 1935)    (American)
C. Breasted, Pioneer to the Past (New York, 1943), pp. 173 214.
J. H. Breasted, "Second Preliminary Report on the Egyptian Expedition," American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 24 (Oct., 1908).

George A. Reisner (1865-1942)  (American)

G.A. Reisner, unpublished autobiography in Dept. of the Art of the Ancient World, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; G.A. Reisner.  "The Barkal Temples in 1916 [Parts I, II, and III]."  Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 4-6 (1917-1920); … "Inscribed Monuments from Gebel Barkal."  Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 66 (1931), pp. 76-100; Dows Dunham, The Barkal Temples.  Boston: 1970; Dows Dunham, Recollections of an Egyptologist (Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, 1972), pp. 17-24.